证券英语的特别语法现象

作者:时间:2011-02-12 10:33:44  来源:  阅读次数:2035次 ]

    摘要:随着经济的快速发展,我国股民越来越多,人们对证券不再陌生。证券英语的超凡脱俗之处有其语法创新。本文通过大量的实例阐述证券英语特别语法现象,以便忠实而准确地理解、翻译和熟练运用证券英语。
    关键词:证券英语;特别;语法 文学论文发表

        Abstract :This paper argues that securities English has special grammar and that it is imperative the grammar be grasped in order that this kind of English should be faithfully and correctly understood and translated and proficiently applied.
        Key words securities English ;special ;grammar
        无论是英文还是中文,证券(securities)是一个涵义相当广的概念。汉语中的“证券”一词,是用以表明各类财产所有权和债权的凭证的统称。证券所有人凭证券所载内容有权取得相应的权益。我国《证券法》于1998年制定,它明确规范的证券类型是指股票、公司债券和国务院依法认定的其他证券。美国证券交易委员会把“securities”综合定义为:any note, stock, treasury stock,security future, bond, debenture, certificate of interest or participation in any profitsharing agreement or in any oil, gas, or other mineral royalty or lease, any collateral-trust certificate, pre-organization certificate or subscription, transferable share, investment contract, voting-trust certificate, certificate of deposit for a security, any put, call, straddle, option, or privilege on any security, certificate of deposit, or group or index of securities (including any interest therein or based on the value thereof), or any put, call, straddle, option, or privilege entered into on a national securities exchange relating to foreign currency, or in general, any instrument commonly known as a “security”; or any certificate of interest or participation in, temporary or interim certificate for, receipt for, or warrant or right to subscribe to or purchase, any of the foregoing.(Section 3a item 10 of the 1934 Act)。英语中的securities 在柯林斯COBUILD 英语词典中的释义是:Securities are stocks, shares, bonds, or other certificates that you buy in order to earn regular interest from them or to sell them later for a profit。因此,不管是英语还是汉语,证券都包括股票、债券、权证、期货和期权等等。证券英语在语法方面决不墨守成规,非常有创意。
        1. 形容词修饰动词作状语 文学论文发表
        Companies go public in order to raise money for the company. They use the money to finance expansions, pay for equipment, and fund projects, etc.(公司上市为公司募集资金。他们利用这些资金来扩大规模、购买设备、开发项目等等。)
        With an initial margin of $2,000 in June, Joe buys one September contract of gold at $350 per ounce, for a total of 1,000 ounces or $350,000. By buying in June, he is going long, with the expectation that the price of gold will rise by the time the contract expires in September.(用2000美元初始保证金,乔六月份以每盎司350美元的价格,购买了总数为1000盎司或三十五万美元的一份九月黄金合约。 他六月份买进,是在做多,希望黄金价格在九月份合约到期时上涨。)
        Suppose that with an initial margin of $3,000, Sara sold one May crude oil contrac at $25 per barrel for a total value of $25,000. By March, the price of oil had reached $20 per barrel and she bought back the contract which was valued at $20,000. By going short, she made a profit $5,000.  
        (假如用3000美元的初始保证金,萨拉以每桶25美元的价格,卖出总值为25000美元的五月原油合约。到三月,石油价格跌到每桶20美元。她买回价值为20000美元的这份合约。通过做空,她获利5000美元。) 文学论文发表
        Some new dot-com millionaires in Silicon Valley cashed in on their latest IPO. The phenomenon spawned the term“siliconaire”which described the dot - comentrepreneurs who suddenly found themselves living large due to IPOs from their Internet companies. (一些新的硅谷互联网百万富翁在最近的首次公开发行股票变现。这种现象产生了“硅谷百万富翁”名称,“硅谷百万富翁”指的是,互联网公司的企业家们一夜之间富甲一方,是由于他们的互联网公司首发股票。)
        The investors may buy low and sell high if the company does well.(陈明瑶、刘法公、陈黎峰,2003 :58)(如果公司运营良好,投资者可以低吸高抛。)
        这里的buy low and sell high 相当于buy the stock when the stock price is low and sell the stock when the stock price is high, 但比后者更简洁明了。
        2. 形容词原级表示形容词最高级意思
        A daily candlestick is based on the open price, the intraday high and low, and the close.(日线K 线图由开盘价、当天的最高价和最低价以及收盘价组成。)
        Some investors consider the closing level to be more important than the open, high or low. By paying attention to only the close, intraday swings can be ignored. Line charts are also used when open, high and low data points are not available.(有些投资者认为收盘价比开盘价、最高价和最低价重要。只注意收盘价,当天的价格波动可以忽视。当没有开盘价、最高价和最低价时,也可使用线图。)
        3. 形容词比较级表示最高级意思
        Futures price have a price change limit that determines the prices between which the contracts can trade on a daily basis. The price change limit is added to and subtracted from the previous day’s close, and the results remain the upper and lower price boundary for the day. Say that the price change limit on silver per ounce is $0.25. Yesterday the price per ounce closed at $5. Today’s upper price boundary for silver would be $5.25 and the lower boundary would be $4.75. At any moment during the day the price of futures contracts for silver reaches either boundary, the exchange shuts down all trading of silver futures for the day.(期货价格有价格变化限制,来限定合约一天的价格。这种价格变化限制就是,在头一天收盘价中加上或者减去限定数,得出的结果就是当天的价格的上下限。例如,每盎司银价限定价是0. 25美元,昨天银价收盘价是5美元,那么,今天银价上限将是5.25美元,下限是4.75美元。一天中的任何时候期货合约中银的价格到达上限就不能再涨或者到达下限就不能再下跌了,当天期货银就涨停或者跌停。)
        4. 形容词当名词用 文学论文发表
        The series of “lower highs” and “lower lows” is lower than the former ones, which is a tell tale sign of a stock in a down trend. In other words, each time the stock edged lower,it went lower than its previous relative low price. The sequence of lower lows and lower highs is broken, which is the indication that the down trend is at least pausing and possibly ending. At this time we would likely stop actively selling the stock. (相继一系列下降的价格波峰和波谷都对应地低于前一个波峰和波谷,那么市场就处于下降趋势中。波动下跌的趋势被打破、逆转,这表示至少下降趋势就要停止、可能就要结束。这时我们就不会卖掉股票。)
        Convertibles earn interest even when the stock is trading down or sideways, but when the stock price rises, the value of the convertible increases.(当股市走低或者横盘整理时,可转换债券可赢利,可转换债券的价值增值。)
        这里的convertible 等于convertible bonds。
        With an increase of US $ 2 billion in trading volume over the previous week, the Dow Jones Industrial Average closed 45 points up at 14,698.6 points, hitting a new high for two years.(随着交易量比前周放大20亿美元,道• 琼斯工业平均指数本周上扬45点,以14698.60点抱收,创两年新高。)
        5. 名词作形容词用
        It is often said that earnings are the 文学论文发表
        bottom - line when it comes to valuing a company’s stock, and indeed fundamental analysis places much emphasis upon a company’s earnings.(当评估公司股票时,人们通常认为公司的收益最重要。的确,基本面分析非常重视公司的赢利能力。)

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